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Industrial Water and Wastewater Treatment: An Overview

What is industrial wastewater?

Industrial wastewater is the contaminated water generated after industrial or commercial activities in various industrial sectors. Today almost all industries require fresh water for their regular commercial activities. Fresh water is generally extracted from natural resources such as rivers, groundwater, lakes or the sea.

Industries use water for various purposes including processing, reaction, formation, purification or separation of the desired product. The undesired or excess water resulting after industrial use contains various contaminants in a suspended or dissolved form. Each industry has its own unique characteristics of wastewater that needs to be carefully evaluated to suit its recycling requirements.

Sources of Industrial Wastewater

In industries, water is used in various parts of the production process such as utilities, processing, cleaning, washing, human consumption etc. The wastewater is emanating from primarily two sources: effluent wastewater from industrial processes and municipal sewage due to human consumption. It is important to understand the quality and quantity of contaminants vary significantly in both industrial wastewater and municipal sewage. Depending on the nature and quantity of pollutants, the treatment approach and process will be decided.

What are the treatment methods for industrial wastewater?

The contaminant levels and the nature of contaminants vary significantly across industries. In general, industrial wastewater contains a mix of organic and inorganic wastes, dissolved ions, suspended solids, biological components, pathogens or microorganisms etc.

The industrial wastewater effluent treatment plant undergoes multiple treatment steps to recover the bulk of wastewater and reduce effluent volume. These include primary, secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment followed by a minimum or zero liquid discharge system.

Below are some examples of various processes that covers in wastewater treatment:

Primary treatment of wastewater involves:

  • Coarse and fine screening
  • Coagulation and flocculation
  • Primary settler/ clarification tank
  • Dissolved Air Floatation (DAF)
  • Oil skimmer
  • Sludge collection tank

Secondary treatment of wastewater consists of:

  • Biodegradation of industrial effluent/ biological aeration
  • Anoxic/anaerobic system
  • Secondary settling tank
  • Activated sludge recycling tank

Tertiary treatment of wastewater covers:

  • Granular media filtration/sand filtration
  • Activated Carbon Filter
  • Micron Cartridge Filter
  • Ultrafiltration or Nanofiltration
  • Reverse Osmosis system
  • Ion Exchange resin
  • Disinfection system

Industrial Wastewater Treatment plant Design

The industrial design and engineering of an industrial wastewater treatment plant depend on multiple factors i.e. basic inputs, outlet water quality requirements, regulatory compliance etc. After basic process design concepts and technology selection, the most important and crucial steps of basic and details engineering starts followed by equipment sizing and technical specifications.

The advanced design is an incremental and slow-moving process from idea and feasibility study to successful commissioning, performance guarantee test and final hand-over.

What is the wastewater treatment approach of GreenPebble Tech (GPT)?

GreenPebble Technologies offer a wide range of products and engineering services for its water and wastewater treatment solutions. Our focus is to deliver on sustainability, efficiency and robustness in process solutions.

GPT takes a thorough overview of customers’ inlet wastewater quality, local site conditions, treatment goals, regulatory compliance etc. Depending on given inputs, basic and detailed engineering design will be considered along with commercial aspects at the project stage itself. Our approach is to strictly abide by the customer’s expectations, project timeline and budget to execute the project. Along all stages of the project, we keep all our stakeholders apprised with respect to deliverables and milestones.

Get in touch with us at, to inquire more about novel solutions in the industrial water and wastewater treatment segment.

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