Forward Osmosis (FO)

Green Pebble Technologies > Forward Osmosis (FO)

Forward Osmosis (FO)

Advanced Membrane Separation using Forward Osmosis Technology

GreenPebble Technologies is an innovation-driven water and wastewater treatment solutions provider based in India. We design, manufacture and supply proprietary Forward Osmosis membrane, module and plant systems – for applications such as ZLD, wastewater treatment and recycle, seawater desalination, industrial effluent treatment plants etc. 

Forward Osmosis (FO) is an advanced and sustainable membrane separation process, where a semi-permeable thin-film composite membrane generates water flux using a concentration gradient across the membrane. This way it is possible to recover, concentrate, separate or purify valuable feed sources and generate fresh water with minimal energy and pressure requirements.

FO is considered to be promising technology due to its operational and process-related advantages over conventional technologies. 

As FO is relying on osmotic pressure generated by concentration gradient across the membrane- to extract clean and fresh water from feed source-, unlike any other pressure-driven membrane process, there is no need to apply additional hydraulic pressure on a feed side.

In FO, the water recovery is accomplished using concentrated draw solution to generate a concentration gradient across the membrane, which gives recovered water mixed with draw solution. Essentially, FO requires a subsequent draw solution regeneration step where the separation of product water and draw solution is accomplished. The draw recovery section is an essential step for the continuity of integrated operation in FO.

GPT uses a proprietary arrangement of membrane system along with FO to recover product water and reconcentrate the draw solution. Depending on feed source, inlet quality parameters, and overall treatment goals, GPT customizes the plant configuration to regenerate draw solution including RONF or membrane distillation (MD).

Applications of Forward Osmosis (FO) 


Our pilot and commercial results showed successful outcomes for our clients in achieving around 70-80% of water recovery and a 50% reduction in energy consumption.


Advantages of Forward Osmosis (FO)

  • High water recovery

  • Low operational pressure

  • Simple, easy and integrated design

  • Minimized waste

  • Low energy consumption per unit of water recovered

  • Low capital investment

  • Low operation and maintenance costs

  • Less fouling and scaling

  • Longer membrane life

  • Ability to treat complex wastewater

  • Modular structure